Glossary

Abstraction 1. a type of concept, without all details. 2. there are many levels of abstraction from close (tastes like chicken) to remote (brave in speech, maybe not brave in action) 1. Analogies can be formed at many levels of abstraction 2. An order of magnitude guess is 50 levels of abstract concepts as supported by the concept elevator
Alexia Loss of ability to read Destruction in Broca’s area of temporal lobe, after site
Almost Gate the neuron’s axon fires completely once the neural threshold is reached, no matter how much it is exceeded by Almost Gate
Amygdala Part of the limbic system. Determines emotional reaction to perceived reality. Source of fight-or-flight reaction Stimulated electrically produces strong emotional responses
Aphasia Loss of ability to form sensible sentences destruction in Weinicki’s area of temporal lobe
Aplysia californica Sea slug used by Eric Kandel Experimentally validated Hebb’s Law, Showed LTP
Attention, covert Mentally conceived objects and situations
Attention, overt Physically present objects and situations
Basal Ganglia Gray matter, movement. Motivation. Reward and punishment Low dopamine, Parkinsonism
Behavior, Motivated Processes that reduce discrepancies from the set point are known as negative feedback. Most motivated behavior can be described as negative feedback: Something happens to cause a disturbance, and behavior continues in varying ways until it relieves the disturbance.
Brainstem Reptilian – internal physical and survival.  medulla, pons, tegmentum, tectum, inferior colliculus, superior colliculus, thalamus, pineal gland controls body’s systems (not concerned with thinking). Brit: diencephalon. These structures are the epithalamus, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the subthalamus
Category Simple, very fundamental unit of organization as a single unit of cognition.
Causality If the same situation occurs, there will be the same outcome.
Center-Surround Structure Excitatory halo. Example are priming effects. Mention painting casts an excitatory halo over words associated with painting so that your next sentence may be “I don’t draw that conclusion” rather than “That does not logically follow.” Weaker signals, not sufficient to fire more distant pyramidal cells, but large enough to make them fire more easily for later situation
Central Executive, Area 4b Both Left and Right. If one hemisphere is dominant for language, the other side uses the available neural capacity to evaluate similarity rather than conclusions.
Cerebellum “Little brain” at the back of scull, underneath the major bulk of the cerebrum’s cortex. Responsible for balance and fine motor skills. No conscious control or knowledge of its actions The flocculonodular lobe, the first section of cerebellum to evolve, receives sensory input from the vestibules of the ear; the anterior lobe receives sensory input from the spinal cord; and the posterior lobe, the last to evolve, receives nerve impulses from the cerebrum. All of these nerve impulses are integrated within the cerebellar cortex.
Classification Organization of information and categories Oral cultures classify by situation, not by written words
Cognition Expresses the full range of all aspects on the brain, not just rational thinking, but including it. Includes perrception, attention, mental control, gathering and using knowledge, language, behavioral control and monitoring.
Cognitive Neuroscience study linking the brain and nervous system to cognitive processing and to behavior
Cognitive Psychology The study of how people perceive, learn, remember, and think about information. Can sometimes use concepts that are given as mental
Cold Cognition Inferior parietal lobe (working memory), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Override “unconscious.” Opposite is Hot Cognition, that is weighing immediate emotional aspects as more important than long abstract goals
Complexity Theory Actors with simple rules exhibit seemingly complex behavior because of intricacies of environment they must act within
Concept Set pattern. Sternberg: we encode (word) meanings into memory through concepts More complex aggregation of categories that can be used as a single unit of cognition.
Concept Elevator Sensory patterns at base, along with specified genetic forms (movement direction). Sensory ensemble. Abstract features of interest. Internal goals demanding satisfaction. Current situation. Experiential memory. aka concept hierarchy
Conscious Limited to the cortex, frontal lobes (only ?, all of front lobe?)
Corpus Callosum Consists of about 200 millon axons that interconnect the two hemispheres. The primary function of the corpus callosum is to integrate motor, sensory, and cognitive performances between the cerebral cortex on one side of the brain to the same region on the other side. Only placental mammals and later species on that branch. When formed?
Cortex First appears in mammals. Enhance extraction of information from sensory data
Creativity Ability to go beyond exact situation to envision additional possibilities. Another perspective is the ability to see similarities in abstractions of one problem domain in another problem domain. That is in contrast to logically deducing new consequences. Britannica:  the ability to make or otherwise bring into existence something new, whether a new solution to a problem, a new method or device, or a new artistic object or form.useful dictionary definition with gloss in neural network terms. Acting on relationships between patterns
Critical Period (Sensitive Period) When experiences have a particularly strong and long-lasting effect Onset depends on availability of GABA, the brain’s main inhibitory transmitter. Also ends with myelination of axons between modules (regions) of the brain
Deduction the deriving of a conclusion by reasoning ; specif: inference in which the conclusion about particulars follows necessarily from general or universal premises compare induction  Deductive Reasoning – an argument is said to be deductive when the truth of the conclusion is purported to follow necessarily
Dopamine Neurotransmitter which activates Presence is pleasureable. Ergo importance for learning along a reward/punishment dimension
Dual Process Theory Belief that thinking occurs in two different ways – System 1 intuitive, associative, fast, and System 2 deductive, reasoning, slow. See Stanovich and Kahneman System 1 – by similarities; System 2 – by logical reasoning
Emotional Valence The net weighting of a situation based on its satisfaction of the 3S drives – Satiety, Safety, Sex
Emotions Bodily reaction to danger or reward situations. Thalamus can send to Amygdala which can trigger hypothalamus releasing adrenaline (unconscious) Lagging thalamus sends to cortex which evaluates (conscious). Distinction bet. Emotional reaction and emotional valuation. My terminology is muddled
Facial Recognition Uses fusiform gyrus area in particular
Facts, compound
Facts, simple
Feature a distinctive arrangement that comprises a part of the overall pattern. Not just of pictures or sensory data, also of sequences and regularities That long, thin dark shape may be a snake.  Move away immediately. Deeper than cortical. In limbic system’s thalamus
fMRI. functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Function Magnetic Resonance Imaging
GABA. gamma amino butyric acid The brain’s main inhibitory transmitter. Life cycle of concentration in brain. Acivated by pyramoid cells and cause inhibition of other pyramidal cells located at a distance. With excitatory neurons support the center-surround structure. Primary neurotransmitter for spiny striatal neurons. When level is low across the brain, neurons become overexicited which can lead to restlessness, anxiety, and irritability. The onset of the critical period (or sensitive period, when experience have aparticularly strong and long-lasting effect) varies by species and brain area. Its onset depends on the availability of GABA. Lack of experience (cataracts at birth that is fixed later than 6 months) causes sensitive period to be missed and vision to never develop properly
Gestalt Emphasizes that the whole of anything is greater than its parts. Overdone, but explains some emergent properties Organization of perception elements: by proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, and symmetry
Goals 1. Safety, Satisfaction, Sex   2. Where you live, what you do as work, how you relate to potential partners There are 2 parts to one’s goals. 1st are the 3S’s from the limbic system – safety, satisfaction, sex. 2nd are the particular ways your genetic complement and perssonal experience shape your goals and personality into behaviors.
Gray Matter Unmyelinated neurons. Sites of processing in brain Where learning takes place and where new sensations are categorized (evaluated)
Hebb’s Learning Law learning specifically involves strengthening certain patterns of neural activity by. experimentally observed that the connection between two neurons increases when both neurons are activated. increasing the probability (weight) of induced neuron firing between the associated connections Eric Kandel’s LTP for which he won the Nobel Prize, sensory experiences that occur again and again result in a distillation of sensory patterns to single neurons.
Homeostasis Satisfaction of immediate, bodily requirements
Homunculus Has been used in multiple contexts over time. Penfield’s cortical homunculus is the mapping of our body within our brain. The distinct and discredited idea of a little person (homunculus) listening and acting on sensory input is not being invoked here. SOM removes some urgency from the criticism that an internal entity is needed to perform operations for consciousness
Hot Cognition Posterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus Emotion & social cognition
Hydra 700 MYA. Nerve net generalized response
Hypothalamus Integrates the brain and the endocrine system, across all mammals. Maintains homeostasis. Expression of emotions
Induction 1. Inexact matching/categorization possible; missing data does not forbid  categorization. 2. Inference of a generalized conclusion from particular instances. Induction can generates new premises; however they can be wrong Native mode of collection of neurons. Height of Almost Gate determines level required for match
Instinct (most typical, fight-or-flight) – quick reaction to stimulus, brain stem up to amygdala to hypothalamus thence to pituitary.  Emotional reaction, stimulus threatens safety.  More broadly stimulus weighed against in-place desires (to satiate hunger, sex, safety) A general internal state (hunger) causes a general response.  Internal state (homeostasis) goes through the lower brain which prompts higher level mental activity to identify potential behaviors that will restore homeostasis.  Below level of conscious effort or mental awareness.
Intuition very similar to creativity. The ability to form a conclusion before sufficient evidene is available to completely, deductively prove the conclusion The intuition is formed by pattern analysis and is not a guaranteed conclusion, but a feeling that the conclusion will later be shown to be true.
Kohonen network artificial neural network which spontaneously creates feature maps upon repeated receipt of external stimuli. Demonstrates that feasibility that the human brain could use a similar scheme to learn and organize information
Law of the Excluded Middle Proposition must be either true or false. The law is only valid assertion when facts are simple. That is, when facts do not have multiple components
Learned behavior 1 Personal solution to novel situations that require action
Learned behavior 2 Modeled solutions to situations where we do as our family or peers do.  Social situations, cultural norms.  Solutions that have worked in the past (founder effect) and adopted by others in social group. Religion.
Learned behavior 3 Taught solutions to situations before we experienced the situation, that are task-oriented (academic).  Reading, writing, subject matter – history, science, math, crafts
Learning vs Training Learning is spontaneous achieved by repeated experience being slotted into categories. Training is achieved by a trainer giving the desired category of the experience after each exposure to the experience.
Liar’s Paradox “A man says that he is lying. Is what he says true or false?”  “This statement is false.”   Self-referential problems in natural language. Language and linguistic analysis can lead one astray, because it is possible to make illogical statements, often without knowing it
Limbic system Amygdala, hypothamus, thalamus, mamillary bodies, cingulate gyrus, olfactory bulbs, other. Old mammalian – emotion and satisfaction. 3S – safety, satiation, sex
Logical epitomized by using rules (if-then-else) on ideas (propositions) expressible in words.
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) One or more axons connected to some dendrite bombard it with a brief but rapid series of stimuli- such as 100 synaptic excitations per second for 1 to 4 seconds. This burst leaves some synapses potentiated, more responsive to new input of the same type, for minutes, days, or weeks. A persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity. These are patterns of synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two neurons.
Materialism Only things known are what are experienced. Blank slate
Medulla oblongata Breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing, sneezing
Memory not an external photograph retained in the brain, but a reconstruction based on observed event, emotional content, and learned relationships.
Mentalese The hypothetical language of thought, or representation of concepts and propositions in the brain, in which ideas, including the meanings of words and sentences, are couched. Pinker also asserts that language is instinctual, “… a distinct piece of the biological makeup of our brains …”
Metaphor Word-based example of our use of patterns in thinking Theory: if left picks category, then right finds metaphors
mV milliVolts, 1/1000 of a volt. A neuron needs an additional 75-85 mV for it to fire down its axon. Each dendrite into the neuron can deliver from 0-35 or 0-50 mV, depending of a person’s particular biochemistry The average cortical neuron has 7000 excitatory and 3000 inhibitory connections with other neurons.
Myelin White, insulating sheath on the axon of many neurons. Composed of fatty materials, protein, and water, the myelin sheath is deposited in layers around axons by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and by a type of neuroglia called an oligodendrocyte in the central nervous system. Fixes connection, speeds connection. Its occurrence appears to be the biochemical marker of the critical stage of learning in the section of the brain which processes the relevant data.
Neocortex
Neural Threshold
Neuromodulator Across a wide swath of neurons, changes threshold level
Neurotransmitter At specific synapse, carries signal across
Nodes of Ranvier
Pattern Pattern is defined to be a collection of features necessary and sufficient to identify an object.  Term also used to reference collection of facts, explanations, and predictions that are treated by some as real and by others as provisional and yet by still others as non-real—depending on the individual’s particular Almost Gate barrier.
Pattern-Matching comparison of patterns. The determination is done in the brain in areas not connected with speech. After the determination (neural summation) is made, in normal brains, the corpus callosum and other commissures make the result available to the verbal centers of the brain, where after the fact explanation of an otherwise ineffable conclusion can be constructed. A high-level term for the natural, neural mechanism of processing incoming data through a set of neurons that has already learned to process other input and which, now, processes the new data. It then precedes to pass its information downstream as if the new input is one of its learned categories, even though it isn’t an exact match, just a sufficient match to the learned category to surpass the Almost Gate.
Personality Stable, long-term reactions to expected situations Emotions are short, powerful reactions to situations, esp. novel situations
Pons bridge, where right nerves cross to left and visa versa Holds habits that are triggered from cortex to cerebellum
Pound to Reality Manner in which one treats a less than exact pattern as an exact pattern Then used in logic as a premise. Recognized or unrecognized
Premise Selection Too often taken for granted that starting with indisputable facts. Actually categorized abstraction in the logical processing of ideas, the starting point. If the premises are true, then the logical conclusions will also be true. Otherwise, not
Psychology, Folk Embedded in language. Wants, drives, needs, free will explain conscious decisions
Putamen Part of basal ganglia Stores automatic motor programs. Habits of movements
Rational thought Having reason or understanding. Process of drawing logical inferences, both deductive and inductive which must test well against external reality as perceived by the individual – and the individual’s peers
Reasoning the drawing of inferences or conclusions through the use of reason
Reflex immediate reaction to stimulus, spinal cord; reaction before brain receives signal
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis that the structure of a human language sets limits on the thinking of those who speak it; hence a language could even place constraints on the development of the cultures that use it. POV shift. Instead of limiting the infinity what we could think, language extends the constrained world we individually can know.
Semantic Map Related collection of meaningful concepts at the same level of abstraction
Situation Collection of objects, people, together in same milieu, that we notice as germane to our needs or 3S
SOM. Self Organizing Map A neural network in which each input layer neuron is connected to all the other input neurons as well being connected to all the neurons in the output layer. This connection style automatically self-organizes the masses of various input data it receives onto distinct output neurons
Synapse Chemical connection site which has axon of the sending neuron on one side and dendrite of the receiving neuron on the other The conversion from electrical flow to chemical exchange is the spot where Hebb’s Law comes into action. At the synapse the efficiency of how much charge is transmitted across the gap changes
Weighting Proportion of axon input that is transferred across synapse to receiving neuron During training GABA allows many neurons to contribute strongly to the total charge received by a neuron. GABA declines on a schedule controlled by genetics, resulting in fixing the final efficiency of synaptic transmission, which is further fixed at the output side by myelination of the cluster’s axon to other brain clusters
White Matter Color of axon covering through which transmission of results from one brain locality to another takes place Part of the brain that shuttles evaluations between modules.