Information is believed to be transmitted not by a single firing of a neuron, but by the neuron’s spike train: either by overall rate of firing or by precise timing of firing.

I have removed that complication in the discussion, because it does not alter the fundamental idea. Any set of input which exceeds the neuron’s threshold is treated the same thereafter. The Almost Gate is operational.

Scholarpedia. http://www.scholarpedia.org/. Web site. Dec. 15, 2017.

From Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The mathematical proof technique called “mathematical induction” is deductive and not inductive. Proofs that make use of mathematical induction typically take the following form:

Property P is true of the natural number 0.

For all natural numbers *n*, if P holds of *n* then P also holds of *n* + 1.

Therefore, P is true of *all* natural numbers.

When such a proof is given by a mathematician, and when all the premises are true, then the conclusion follows necessarily. Therefore, such an inductive argument is deductive. It is deductively sound, too.

From WikiPedia article. Bolding added.

Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing. Working memory is important for **reasoning** and the guidance of decision-making and behavior. Working memory is often used synonymously with short-term memory, but some theorists consider the two forms of memory **distinct**, assuming that working memory allows for the manipulation of stored information, whereas **short-term memory** only refers to the short-term storage of information

Memory is not a photograph of external reality stored in the brain, but a reconstruction based on observed event, personal emotional impact, and learned relationships.

Consider the Almost Gates that the current situational features go through. Our remembered situations also go through the same path. When there is sufficient matching of results (neural thresholds are surmounted), the situations fit in the same abstract category. Other features of the situations may or may not be comparable.

Professor Maguire quoted in a Wellcome press release in Dec. 2011.

The current situation, remembered situations, and 3S imperatives – in their manifestations as emotions, personality traits, goals, desires, and fears – feed into neurons whose outputs lead ultimately to different actions.

The neuron whose Almost Gate is surmounted triggers its action chain. With so many neural inputs streaming from various sources, it’s unsurprising that typically our 3S imperatives are not completely satisfied by our response.

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is the theory that an individual’s thoughts and actions are determined by the language or languages that individual speaks.

The strong version of the hypothesis states that all human thoughts and actions are bound by the restraints of language, and is generally less accepted than the *weaker version.*

The weaker version says that language only *somewhat shapes our thinking and behavior*.

Instead of considering linguistic relativism as limiting the possibilities of thought, a better perspective is that language organizes experience in a manner which has yielded useful thoughts and behaviors over the language’s lifespan.