The Shape of Your Internal Worldview

In the right column the essay, “Limits of Perfection”, explores a general phenomenon I noticed while working in software development. Typically, we try to close the most obvious gaps in a problem by the solution closest at hand. Unfortunately, many degrees of freedom are removed before we confront the most difficult problems. Mindscape The same…


Words are used to categorize the world. A diagrammatic image of the relations between words.

Mentalese is a term for the collection of ideas which attempt to describe our thoughts and internal monologues. What symbols do we use for thinking and what rules do they follow?. The symbols are so often words that sometimes it seems that all thought is words. The ready but naive assumption that all thoughts are…

Pattern-Matching and Invariance

A seawall lets only some waves beyond

In neuroscience, the process I call pattern-matching is sometimes referred to as an invariant operation. Yohan John in Quora raises the question How does your brain discover association in the midst of so much disassociation? and suggests the form of the answer. That’s a question that has nagged at me for thirty plus years. His…

Culture in Nurture

Cultural behaviors are not responses to immediate demands, but to choices that arise when immediate demands are distant from a daily decisions.

Speech and Neurons

Neurons exist in the newborn. None connected to others. Isolated neurons don’t produce meaningful sounds. As infants experience sounds in their first month, connections between the neurons are established.